Primary Hyperoxaluria

Claire, diagnosed with PH1


Understanding Primary Hyperoxaluria Type 1

Primary hyperoxaluria (PH) constitutes a group of rare inherited disorders of the liver characterized by the overproduction of oxalate, an end-product of metabolism. High levels of oxalate are toxic because oxalate cannot be broken down by the human body and accumulates in the kidneys.

There are 3 types of PH: type 1 (PH1), type 2 (PH2), and type 3 (PH3). PH1 is the most common and the most severe form, accounting for 70% to 80% of all cases. PH1 is an ultra-rare, inherited disease in which excessive amounts of oxalate are produced by the liver. PH1 affects approximately 4 individuals per million in the United States and Europe, with an estimated 1,300 to 2,100 diagnosed cases. In some regions, such as the Middle East and North Africa, the genetic prevalence of PH1 is higher. Currently, the only curative treatment for PH1 is a liver transplant. If the patient has already progressed to kidney failure, then a dual liver/kidney transplant is required.

What are the Symptoms of PH1?

People with PH1 often experience the formation of oxalate stones throughout the urinary tract and kidneys.
When a person with PH1 has a kidney stone, symptoms can include:

 Flank pain
 Urinary tract infections
 Painful urination
 Blood in the urine

Some individuals are not diagnosed until after their kidneys have failed and they require dialysis to help filter waste products from the blood.

PH1 Inside the Body

Disease onset
& progression

Patients can be diagnosed with PH1 at any age, but most individuals experience their first symptoms in early childhood.

For many patients, PH1 is not diagnosed immediately. Since kidney stones in adults are more commonplace, adult patients with PH1 often spend many years undiagnosed until they present with severe kidney disease.

PH1 Manifestations by Stage of Life

As PH1 progresses, it often results in end-stage renal disease, a life-threatening condition that prevents the kidneys from filtering fluids and waste from the body effectively.

Consequently, the build-up of oxalate can lead to the deposition of oxalate crystals in the eyes, bones, skin, heart, and central nervous system, causing diminished vision, bone fractures, ulcers, heart failure, and other complications.

Understanding PH1: One family’s story

Three of Jared and Natalie’s four children were born with PH1. Hear from Claire and Benson about what it’s like to live with this rare inherited disorder.

The Skinners – Living with Primary Hyperoxaluria Type 1 (PH1)


Take on PH1 is dedicated to helping patients and their caregivers learn about primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) and navigate the challenges of living with this condition.

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